diseases are important. They can be obvious to owners, or they can
result in blindness which can be distressing, or they can result
in pain. Unfortunately some eye diseases are common in certain breeds.
Checking dogs for eye disease is commonly practice all round the
1. Focal light
This gives a bright, concentrated light source. It is used to check
the pupil response, the cornea and the iris.
provides magnification, with a variable slit beam of light. It is
extremely useful to examine the eyelids, cornea, aqueous (fluid
of the eye), iris, lens, and the anterior portion of the vitreous
( jelly of the eye). Using this machine may enable the detection
of early cataracts or small lesions.
is ideal for checking the eyelids and the openings of the tear ducts.
It enables a magnified view with both hands free to move the eyelids.
light source and a hand lens allows examination of the fundus (retina
and optic nerve). A large area is seen at any one time.
This hand held item is used for a magnified look at the fundus.
It can also be used to fully examine the edges of the retina. Using
the two types of ophthalmoscope maximises the view I get of the
retina and optic nerve. Some diseases are more obvious when viewed
with one type versus the other type.
front of the eye (eyelids, cornea, anterior chamber) is examined
with the focal light. The pupil responses are checked, a normal
pupil should become smaller when a bright light is shone into the
eye. The other pupil also becomes smaller.
to dilate the pupil are then put in. These are short acting (3 to
5 hours), and unlike in man, they do not significantly affect the
dog's vision. They take at least 10 to 15 minutes to dilate the
eyelids, cornea, anterior chamber, iris and the conjunctiva with
a slit lamp are then checked. This gives us a magnified (10 to 25
times) image of these structures. WeI may see extra eyelashes, entropion,
ectopic hairs, corneal lesions, persistent pupillary membranes,
iris or anterior chamber or conjunctival problems.
voroscope is used to recheck the eyelids, looking for extra eyelashes
and also to check the openings of the tear ducts that are on the
inside corner of the eyelids.
the pupils have been dilated, the lens is checked for cataracts
with the slit lamp. Using this magnification, very early cataracts
may be detected.
retina and the optic nerve are then checked with two types of ophthalmoscopes.
A indirect ophthalmoscope gives us a look at a large area of these
tissues, then the direct ophthalmoscope is used to examine the retina
and optic nerve in greater detail.
Internationally acceptable certificates are given. All problems
are noted on this certificate. It is up to the individual breeder
and the breed club to decide whether to use this animal at stud.
should be examined before breeding then each year until 7 to 8 years
of age. Some diseases are not apparent until later in life, e.g.
PRA. Therefore a final clear certificate can only be given at this
the information gathered is treated as confidential. A report can
be made to the club, but only information on the numbers and the
types of conditions seen are reported. No dog or breeder can be